Last time I used a photo of my Cobra canyon layout as an example of how I try to make water look effective on a layout. I mentioned Javis Countryside Water, the make of 'water' I have used most frequently over the last 14 years for my small portable N gauge layouts, and also Deluxe Materials Scenic Water, which I have also used quite a lot. The first you just pour on a thin layer and leave to set (up to 3 days). The second, you heat up in the tub you buy it in, standing it in hot water, then simply pour on. It sets quickly but perhaps doesn't look quite as realistic. For one thing, it has to be persuaded to lie flat at the edges of say, a river bank or stream, by a bit of judicious brushing or spreading. But otherwise it's fine.
There are of course quite a lot of other materials you can use, some you heat, some you mix, and some you pour on or simply squeeze out of a bottle and brush into place. I can only describe ones I have some experience of. Busch Aqua, also mentioned last time, is squeezed out of the bottle and spread with a brush (which has to be washed straight after, or it will harden like the water!). Of course you could use a glue spreader or something similar. It is white to start with, then clears as it dries, also forming ripples as is does so, which makes it look more realistic. (With Javis Countryside Water you have to ripple it yourself, catching it just when it is setting, probably repeating the process several times until it stays put.) As I said last time, adding the water is only the final step in making the scene, and is not usually difficult to do. That is unless your proprietary brand lets you down, as Dapol Modelling Water did for me on Sandside - wait for the next exciting instalment to find out why!
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I used Busch Aqua for the harbour on Nordseehafen. The flat surface underneath is just hardboard painted black, to indicate deeper water. The mud, which was modelled first, is made with frame sealant, which I just squeezed on, added drops of water and spread with a brush. You encourage it to make channels and edges, then wait for it to set, which takes a few days. Only then can you add the water, which as you can see overlaps the edges, especially at the bottom of the slipway. The water in the stream on the other side of the bridge is also made with Busch Aqua. In retrospect I don't think I did a very good job of defining the edges of the water - perhaps painting a lighter colour of blue/green and adding sand or gravel, like I did on Porth Kernow (I will come to this in a future issue, but in the meantime there are pictures of all my layouts in my books and articles if you can't wait that long!)
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In the photo above the ICE train is just about to disappear into the tunnel which joined it then to my other German outline layout, Die alte Mühle. The harbour is my representation of the one at Husum, once a much busier seaport on the North Sea coast of Schlweswig Holstein, and the former home of my favourite German poet, Theodor Storm, which is the other reason why I was there taking photos. But I digress! Of course you can just use varnish, as I did on my High Peaks Railroad layout way back in 2002. It was non-drip, which I haven't seen in the shops for a while, dried fairly quickly and obligingly rippled itself in the process. The water from the waste pipes was just strands of Evostik with a bit of white paint dabbed on after it had set.